Art of the Digital Age

A comprehensive reference section that includes a year-by-year timeline of breakthroughs in digital art, an extensive bibliography, a list of artists' websites and online projects, and a glossary of digital terms complete this indispensable assessment of art in the new millennium. 232 illustrations, 218 in color.

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Copyright Laws for Websites

IP lawyer Geraldina Mattsson has started off her new career with ACID Accredited Law Firm DMH Stallard’s legal team, with a useful set of guidelines about setting up a webpage to sell and market your products regarding intellectual property rights. It is almost standard practice these days for businesses of any size to have websites to advertise and sell their products and services. Although the web’s popularity grew exponentially in the mid-90s, its policing remains largely uncontrolled. It is therefore important for owners of intellectual property rights to be aware of the ease of intellectual property infringement in cyberspace and of committing infringement against other rights-holders, whether innocently or intentionally. This applies to businesses that commission webpage specialists to construct a website as well as those that prefer building their own. Either way, it is important to consider the following issues before your webpage goes live:-

Ensure that you warn others of your ownership in the intellectual property rights in the webpage content by displaying a copyright notice either at the bottom of your webpage or which can be retrieved by clicking on a link on your page.

If you are displaying any goods that have the benefit of registered trade mark or registered design protection, be sure to use the relevant symbols to warn others that your goods are protected by intellectual property rights. ACID members, of course, can use the powerful ACID logo together with an IP statement, “All intellectual property rights in our designs and products and in the images, text and design of this website are and will remain the property of (insert your name), Any infringement of these rights will be taken seriously”.(see,;; as examples).

Include a set of conditions of use and/or service which sets out clearly the issues of intellectual property ownership, responsibilities and liabilities required of the end-user and/or how you may wish to use any intellectual property created by the end-user, if applicable. You should also specify that the end-user is only granted a limited licence to access and use your website without conferring any rights to modify or download any content without express consent from you.

Beware of taking material protected by copyright from other web pages such as texts, photos, specialised fonts or typographical arrangements and using such material on your webpage without prior permission from the rights-owner. As is widely known, it is easy to right-click on your mouse to copy material from another page; but according to IT specialists, there is technology available that can enable copyright owners to identify the source carrying out the infringing act, making it easier and quicker for copyright owners to catch infringers. In turn, you may wish to invest in the same technology to deter potential infringers and include a notice to that effect on your webpage. If you do, a pop-up message may appear after an end-user has right-clicked on copy-protected material to warn the end-user against copying the content without permission. Alternatively, this technology may be covert where the end-user is not forewarned about the potential liability in copying the protected content, but will be directly issued with a cease and desist letter containing a demand for compensation. Businesses must decide which of these methods is of more value to them.

If you wish to place links to interesting or relevant articles illustrations or photos on your webpage, you must ensure that permission from the copyright owner is obtained first.
It is essential that you register your domain name; this is the address of your webpage. A domain name is an extremely important marketing tool as it identifies your business. You should choose a domain name that best suits your business and should ensure that your domain name registrar (should you decide to use one) conducts the requisite checks to ascertain that the name selected has not previously been registered or may be a trade mark of another company.

You should also choose your domain name registrar carefully. Nominet, the internet registry for .uk domain names, provides some general advice on its webpage on how to choose a registrar. To apply for .eu domain names, you should consult the webpage of the European Registry of Internet Domain Names (EURid), at

Implementing the above points will provide you with some basic defences against infringers and rights-holders. Owners of intellectual property rights will need to balance vigilance in protecting their intellectual property rights with cautiousness against inadvertently infringing the rights of other rights-holders. Don’t forget the ACID legal hotline number is 0845 230 5742 and this is available for initial free advice on contentious and non-contentious matters.

Ground Breaking Design Legislation

In a ground breaking judgment between Proctor & Gamble and Reckitt Benckiser at the Court of Appeal, Lord Justice Jacob has issued guidelines on how monopoly rights over designs should be interpreted in the future across the European Union. The relatively new registered and unregistered Community design has only been going for four years, and, as a result, there have been very few cases to clarify the position. Prior to this latest ruling the legal test was whether one product would provide the “same overall impression on the informed user” to an alleged copy. However, in his analysis Judge Jacob ruled that a variety of “differences” - from the “shape” of the head of Reckitt Benckiser’s Febreze sprayer to the “tapering off” of the can - provided a “different overall impression on the informed user” to the Proctor & Gamble product thus changing the way this monopoly right will be relied upon in the future.

What is the definition of design?

“Design” means the appearance of the whole or a part of a product resulting from the features of, in particular, the lines, colour, shape, texture, contours, materials and ornamentation. The Registered Community Design is a monopoly right lasting 25 years, renewable every 5 years. It is valid in 27 member states.
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Why Frieze is hot

London’s Frieze fair is the hippest place to be this week: and the art will be pretty good, too.

Frieze Art Fair takes place every October in Regent’s Park, London. It features around 150 of the most exciting contemporary art galleries in the world. The fair also includes specially commissioned artists’ projects, a prestigious talks programme and an artist-led education schedule.

Admission - Opening Hours
Thursday 11 October 11am-7pm
Friday 12 October 11am-7pm
Saturday 13 October 11am-7pm
Sunday 14 October 11am-6pm

Box Office & 24 hour credit hotline: See Tickets
Tel +44 (0)870 890 0514 Group Bookings +44 (0)870 899 3342 Book tickets here

Frieze Art Fair Tours
For an insight into the art works on display and an introduction to the fair itself, professional guides will provide an overview of Frieze Art Fair and its history introducing you to the highlights of the exhibition looking at art works in more detail.
Tours last for approximately one hour and are limited to 12 places. Group guiding systems are provided by Acoustiguide. Tickets are now available.

Since we live in a democracy, you are notionally free to choose where you go between Thursday and next Sunday. If, however, you live your life in the manner of most modern citizens, guided by the frantic proddings of the zeitgeist, pushed this way and that by the rhythms of cool, then you actually have little say in the matter. If you don’t want to be the only square in your village, you need to go to Frieze. Everybody else will be there.

On paper, it’s just an art fair. But then, on paper, Michelangelo’s David is just a lump of stone. On paper, the Taj Mahal is a building, and Helen Mirren is an actress. When it comes to describing exceptional cultural phenomena, the English language is occasionally out of its depth. And “art fair” is a particularly unfortunate example. It’s the way word two seems to undermine word one that annoys. I’m not saying Frieze isn’t, technically, an art fair. My point is that this glum definition doesn’t begin to capture the drama and buzz of the event in the tent.
For four days in October, the Frieze Art Fair transforms London into a mecca, and collecting into a hajj. People fly in from Miami and New York, from LA and Chi-cago, from Berlin and Zurich, and now, I see, from Beijing, Seoul and Tokyo. Hotels are packed, restaurants booked. You can’t get a limo for love nor money. But the most remarkable thing about Frieze is that it has achieved all this from a standing start. Five years ago, it didn’t even exist.

If you’ve been to the Ideal Home Show or the Motor Show, you will recognise the basic setup. People who want to sell you something rent a venue, jolly it up and fill it with their wares. You are then invited to join them, and are flogged as much of the stuff as your weaknesses will allow. It’s what happens at all trade fairs. But Frieze’s first organisational masterstroke was to locate these familiar exchanges in a venue that was excitingly unfamiliar. Where the typical trade fair takes place in the sucked and spat-out misery of Olympia or tatty old Ally Pally, Frieze happens in a specially designed tented pueblo, a kind of temporary Brasilia made of tarpaulins, situated for some fantastical reason in the unlikely horticultural expanses of Regent’s Park. Marching up to this huge and noisy big top makes you feel like an excited kid being taken to the circus by his nan. And the people selling stuff inside are a different crowd from the ones you are probably used to. Art dealers follow a specific sartorial rule book. The men dress like Mormon missionaries, in dark suits and crisp white shirts, while the women wear only Prada.

The second defining decision made at the outset by the organisers was to deal exclusively in contemporary art. Not modern art, contemporary art. No Picassos, no Henry Moores; no repetition from any of the old-timers. The rule-makers are hardliners on this subject. Only new art from around the world is allowed in. If you’re up with Frieze, therefore, you’re as up as you can be with art. There is nothing fresher than this.

It was all planned and enforced by two absurdly young and adventurous cultural entrepreneurs. One of them, Amanda Sharp, lives in New York, and I know nothing about her. The other one, Matthew Slotover, I’ve encountered a few times, and I can happily confirm that he looks more like my paperboy than the creator of the definitive 21st-century art event so far. As with many contemporary millionaires and internet revolutionaries, he seems far too callow and casual to have achieved what he has.

The name “Frieze”, he confesses happily, was discovered by chance in a thesaurus. He was looking for synonyms for “art”, and there was “frieze”, meaning a horizontal band of carved reliefs. By a curious coincidence, it’s a homophone of the pioneering exhibition mounted in a London warehouse by Damien Hirst in 1988. Freeze was the event that triggered the whole Brit Art thing – and the entire dramatic turnaround in British art taste that was to culminate in the opening of Tate Modern can be traced back, I suggest, to the original Freeze show. So, it was a good name to stumble across.

Before Frieze the art fair came along, Slotover and Sharp ran Frieze the magazine, and that, too, was an impossibly hip blend of obscure thoughts and elegant ads. They started thinking about an art fair in 1998. But it wasn’t until the day Tate Modern opened, in 2000, that they knew they had to go ahead with it. “The whole of the international art world was here,” Slotover says.“They had never come before. But we looked around and thought, they will come to London.”

Bravely and perspicaciously Slotover and Sharp remortgaged their houses and began planning the Frieze Art Fair in the exact detail that characterises their approach to this day. And from the moment it untied its tent flaps in October 2003, it was clear that the zeitgeist was behind it. The figures speak for themselves. In 2005, 47,000 visitors were lured into the great marquee, and spent £33m on art. The next year, the figures were up by 35%. They’ll be up again this year, and next year, and the next. But by how much, we will never know, because, last year, Frieze stopped releasing the details. I suspect they were embarrassed by them.
I spotted Jude, Gwyneth, Elton and Nigella at last year’s Frieze. Jude and Gwyneth were definitely buying, as, I presume, was Elton; and if Nigella wasn’t, then her husband, Charles, whom I also saw, must have been. I think I noticed Claudia hurrying past, too, and Kate would have been there, because Kate goes to everything. Tracey was around, of course, and although I didn’t see Damien, I couldn’t miss Jake and Dinos, because they were plonked right in the middle of the thing, churning out ludicrous portraits of anyone prepared to fork out £4,000 for the pleasure. I wanted to have mine done – who wouldn’t? – but the queue was too long.
Those were just the recognisable faces in the crowd, the A-, B- and C-listers whose presence so handily signals a cultural success. Then there were all those anonymous visitors who, judging by the cut of their thongs and the swing of their bling, constituted a large percentage of the nation’s groovers: the young, the fresh, the giggly. If Al-Qaeda decided to take out the Frieze tent, they would undoubtedly take out most of Britain’s happening types.

But the hipness of Frieze is certainly not why I, a longtime abhorrer of art fairs, approve of this event and, indeed, delight in it. I like Frieze because it gives so much away. I don’t mean the leaflets and baseball caps you come out with. That happens at all trade fairs. Frieze deals in a different kind of freebie. One of the best things the fair does is to commission work by artists who are not directly involved with a particular gallery. This year, the venerable American trouble-maker Richard Prince will be showing a full-size recreation of a macho 1970 car called a Dodge Challenger. The original Challenger was a mass-produced piece of flash that guys liked. But Prince has reversed its usual manufacturing process by building his model entirely by hand, from scratch. What’s being challenged, therefore, is the nature and value of an original – a key art-world question. And seeing it being asked at Frieze is like going to a motor show and finding a poster covered in road-safety warnings. All the Frieze commissions this year seem to be biting the hand that feeds them by asking awkward questions of the event itself. Elin Hansdottir has set up a lighting system that ensures your shadow is split up into its constituent parts as you enter, as if you don’t really exist.

All these performances share a questioning mood. And that applies to Frieze in general. On the surface, it’s an art fair, but beneath that it’s an art-world conspiracy to subvert the system. In my favourite conceptual manoeuvre, Gianni Motti has asked one of the policemen patrolling Frieze to take a regular public break from security to practise yoga. That I really want to see. And it’s why a hardened art-fair hater like me will be at the head of the queue on Thursday, making sure I get in before you.

Frieze Art Fair, Regent’s Park, NW1, October 11-14.

1600+ Images from the Cooklin archive

International digital artist, Paul Cooklin, finally launches his full catalogue of images. From the very first to over 1600, these images have impact and depth which connect with the viewer. Suitable for all media applications including editorials, web and print, the collection is priced with a Rights Managed license for affordability.

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